PubMed Journals: Int J Epidemiol
Source: PMID: 32086938
⇦ ⇨ Int J Epidemiol. 2020 Feb 22. pii: dyaa033. doi:
⇩ 10.1093/ije/dyaa033. [Epub ahead of print]
The SARS, MERS and novel coronavirus
(COVID-19) epidemics, the newest and biggest
global health threats: what lessons have we
Peeri NC(1), Shrestha N(1), Rahman MS(2), Zaki
R(3), Tan Z(1), Bibi S(4), Baghbanzadeh M(5),
Aghamohammadi N(6), Zhang W(7), Haque
(1) Department of Biostatistics and
University of North Texas Health Science Center,
Fort Worth, TX, USA.
(2) Department of Statistics, Begum Rokeya
University, Rangpur, Bangladesh.
(3) Centre for Epidemiology and
Evidence-based Practice, Department of Social
and Preventive Medicine, University of Malaya,
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
(4) Department of Biology, National University of
Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
(5) Department of Business Development,
Ofogh Kourosh Chain Stores, Tehran, Iran.
(6) Centre for Occupational and Environmental
Health, Department of Social and Preventive
Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of
Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
(7) Center for Disease Surveillance and
Research, Center for Disease Control and
Prevention of PLA, Beijing, People's Republic of
OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the
three major deadly coronaviruses and identify
areas for improvement of future preparedness
plans, as well as provide a critical assessment
of the risk factors and actionable items for
stopping their spread, utilizing lessons learned
from the first two deadly coronavirus outbreaks,
as well as initial reports from the current novel
coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic in Wuhan,
China. METHODS: Utilizing the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC, USA) website, and a comprehensive
review of PubMed literature, we obtained
information regarding clinical signs and
symptoms, treatment and diagnosis,
transmission methods, protection methods and
risk factors for
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS),
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
and COVID-19. Comparisons between the
viruses were made. RESULTS: Inadequate risk
assessment regarding the urgency of the
situation, and limited reporting on the virus
within China has, in part, led to the rapid spread
of COVID-19 throughout mainland China and
into proximal and distant countries. Compared
with SARS and MERS, COVID-19 has spread
more rapidly, due in part to increased
globalization and the focus of the epidemic.
Wuhan, China is a large hub connecting the
North, South, East and West of China via
railways and a major international airport. The
availability of connecting flights, the timing of
the outbreak during the Chinese (Lunar) New
Year, and the massive rail transit hub located in
Wuhan has enabled the virus to perforate
throughout China, and eventually, globally.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that we did not
learn from the two prior epidemics of
coronavirus and were ill-prepared to deal with
the challenges the COVID-19 epidemic has
posed. Future research should attempt to
address the uses and implications of internet of
things (IoT) technologies for mapping the
spread of infection.
©The Author(s) 2020; all rights reserved.
Published by Oxford University Press on behalf
of the International Epidemiological Association.
DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa033 PMID: 32086938