*nlm.life
			PubMed Journals: Int J Epidemiol

  Source:		PMID: 32086938


    		Int J Epidemiol. 2020 Feb 22. pii: dyaa033. doi:
     		10.1093/ije/dyaa033. [Epub ahead of print]

			The SARS, MERS and novel coronavirus
			(COVID-19) epidemics, the newest and biggest
			global health threats: what lessons have we
			learned?

			Peeri NC(1), Shrestha N(1), Rahman MS(2), Zaki
			R(3), Tan Z(1), Bibi S(4), Baghbanzadeh M(5),
			Aghamohammadi N(6), Zhang W(7), Haque
			U(1).

			Author Information
			(1) Department of Biostatistics and
			Epidemiology,
			University of North Texas Health Science Center,
			Fort Worth, TX, USA.
			(2) Department of Statistics, Begum Rokeya
			University, Rangpur, Bangladesh.
			(3) Centre for Epidemiology and
			Evidence-based Practice, Department of Social
			and Preventive Medicine, University of Malaya,
			Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
			(4) Department of Biology, National University of
			Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
			(5) Department of Business Development,
			Ofogh Kourosh Chain Stores, Tehran, Iran.
			(6) Centre for Occupational and Environmental
			Health, Department of Social and Preventive
			Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of
			Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
			(7) Center for Disease Surveillance and
			Research, Center for Disease Control and
			Prevention of PLA, Beijing, People's Republic of
			China.

			OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the
			three major deadly coronaviruses and identify
			areas for improvement of future preparedness
			plans, as well as provide a critical assessment
			of the risk factors and actionable items for
			stopping their spread, utilizing lessons learned
			from the first two deadly coronavirus outbreaks,
			as well as initial reports from the current novel
			coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic in Wuhan,
			China. METHODS: Utilizing the
			Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
			(CDC, USA) website, and a comprehensive
			review of PubMed literature, we obtained
			information regarding clinical signs and
			symptoms, treatment and diagnosis,
			transmission methods, protection methods and
			risk factors for
			Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS),
			Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
			and COVID-19. Comparisons between the
			viruses were made. RESULTS: Inadequate risk
			assessment regarding the urgency of the
			situation, and limited reporting on the virus
			within China has, in part, led to the rapid spread
			of COVID-19 throughout mainland China and
			into proximal and distant countries. Compared
			with SARS and MERS, COVID-19 has spread
			more rapidly, due in part to increased
			globalization and the focus of the epidemic.
			Wuhan, China is a large hub connecting the
			North, South, East and West of China via
			railways and a major international airport. The
			availability of connecting flights, the timing of
			the outbreak during the Chinese (Lunar) New
			Year, and the massive rail transit hub located in
			Wuhan has enabled the virus to perforate
			throughout China, and eventually, globally.
			CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that we did not
			learn from the two prior epidemics of
			coronavirus and were ill-prepared to deal with
			the challenges the COVID-19 epidemic has
			posed. Future research should attempt to
			address the uses and implications of internet of
			things (IoT) technologies for mapping the
			spread of infection.

			┬ęThe Author(s) 2020; all rights reserved.
			Published by Oxford University Press on behalf
			of the International Epidemiological Association.

			DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyaa033 PMID: 32086938

     			                         Tweet       Print