*nlm.life
			PubMed Journals: Virol J

  Source:		PMID: 31133031


    		Virol J. 2019 May 27;16(1):69. doi:
     		10.1186/s12985-019-1182-0.

			Coronavirus envelope protein: current knowledge.


			Schoeman D(1), Fielding BC(2).

			Author Information
			(1) Molecular Biology and Virology Research
			Laboratory, Department of Medical Biosciences,
			University of the Western Cape, Cape
			Town, South Africa.
			(2) Molecular Biology and Virology Research
			Laboratory, Department of Medical Biosciences,
			University of the Western Cape, Cape Town,
			South Africa. bfielding@uwc.ac.za.

			BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses (CoVs) primarily
			cause enzootic infections in birds and mammals
			but, in the last few decades, have shown
			to be capable of infecting humans as well. The outbreak
			of severe acute respiratory syndrome
			(SARS) in 2003 and, more recently,
			Middle-East respiratory syndrome (MERS)
			has demonstrated the lethality of CoVs when
			they cross the species barrier and infect
			humans. A renewed interest in coronaviral research
			has led to the discovery of several novel
			human CoVs and since then much progress
			has been made in understanding the CoV life
			cycle. The CoV envelope (E) protein is a
			small, integral membrane protein involved
			in several aspects of the virus' life cycle,
			such as assembly, budding, envelope formation,
			and pathogenesis. Recent studies have expanded on
			its structural motifs and topology, its
			functions as an ion-channelling viroporin,
			and its interactions with both other CoV
			proteins and host cell proteins. MAIN BODY:
			This review aims to establish the current
			knowledge on CoV E by highlighting the recent
			progress that has been made and comparing
			it to previous knowledge. It also compares
			E to other viral proteins of a similar nature
			to speculate the relevance of these new findings.
			Good progress has been made but much still
			remains unknown and this review has identified
			some gaps in the current knowledge and made
			suggestions for consideration in future
			research. CONCLUSIONS: The most progress has been
			made on SARS-CoV E, highlighting specific
			structural requirements for its functions
			in the CoV life cycle as well as mechanisms
			behind its pathogenesis. Data shows that
			E is involved in critical aspects of the
			viral life cycle and that CoVs lacking E
			make promising vaccine candidates. The high
			mortality rate of certain CoVs, along with
			their ease of transmission, underpins the
			need for more research into CoV molecular
			biology which can aid in the production
			of effective anti-coronaviral agents for
			both human CoVs and enzootic CoVs.

			DOI: 10.1186/s12985-019-1182-0 PMCID: PMC6537279
			PMID: 31133031

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