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			PubMed Journals: Front Immunol

  Source:		PMID: 30984169


    		Front Immunol. 2019 Mar 28;10:549. doi:
     		10.3389/fimmu.2019.00549. eCollection 2019.

			Infectious Disease Threats in the Twenty-First
			Century: Strengthening the Global Response.

			Bloom DE(1), Cadarette D(1).

			Author Information
			(1) Department of Global Health and Population,
			Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health,
			Boston, MA, United States.

			The world has developed an elaborate global
			health system as a bulwark against known
			and unknown infectious disease threats.
			The system consists of various formal and
			informal networks of organizations that
			serve different stakeholders; have varying
			goals, modalities, resources, and accountability;
			operate at different regional levels (i.e.,
			local, national, regional, or global); and
			cut across the public, private-for-profit,
			and private-not-for-profit sectors. The
			evolving global health system has done much
			to protect and promote human health. However,
			the world continues to be confronted by
			longstanding, emerging, and reemerging infectious
			disease threats. These threats differ widely
			in terms of severity and probability. They
			also have varying consequences for morbidity
			and mortality, as well as for a complex
			set of social and economic outcomes. To
			various degrees, they are also amenable
			to alternative responses, ranging from clean
			water provision to regulation to biomedical
			countermeasures. Whether the global health
			system as currently constituted can provide
			effective protection against a dynamic array
			of infectious disease threats has been called
			into question by recent outbreaks of Ebola,
			Zika, dengue, Middle East respiratory syndrome,
			severe acute respiratory syndrome, and
			influenza and by the looming threat of rising
			antimicrobial resistance. The concern is
			magnified by rapid population growth in
			areas with weak health systems, urbanization,
			globalization, climate change, civil conflict, and
			the changing nature of pathogen transmission
			between human and animal populations. There
			is also potential for human-originated outbreaks
			emanating from laboratory accidents or intentional
			biological attacks. This paper discusses
			these issues, along with the need for a
			(possibly self-standing) multi-disciplinary
			Global Technical Council on Infectious Disease
			Threats to address emerging global challenges
			with regard to infectious disease and associated
			social and economic risks. This Council
			would strengthen the global health system
			by improving collaboration and coordination
			across organizations (e.g., the WHO, Gavi,
			CEPI, national centers for disease control,
			pharmaceutical manufacturers, etc.); filling
			in knowledge gaps with respect to (for example)
			infectious disease surveillance, research
			and development needs, financing models,
			supply chain logistics, and the social and
			economic impacts of potential threats; and
			making high-level, evidence-based recommendations
			for managing global risks associated with infectious
			disease.

			DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00549 PMCID: PMC6447676
			PMID: 30984169

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