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			PubMed Journals: J Virol

  Source:		PMID: 16014910
  Download:	https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1181546/pdf/0030-05.pdf

    		J Virol. 2005 Aug;79(15):9470-9.
     
			Apical entry and release of
			severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated
			coronavirus in polarized Calu-3 lung epithelial cells.

			Tseng CT(1), Tseng J, Perrone L, Worthy
			M, Popov V, Peters CJ.

			Author Information
			(1) Department of Microbiology and Immunology,
			University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston,
			77555-0609, USA. sktseng@utmb.edu

			Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), caused
			by a novel coronavirus (CoV) known as SARS-CoV,
			is a contagious and life-threatening respiratory
			illness with pneumocytes as its main target.
			A full understanding of how SARS-CoV would
			interact with lung epithelial cells will
			be vital for advancing our knowledge of
			SARS pathogenesis. However, an in vitro
			model of SARS-CoV infection using relevant
			lung epithelial cells is not yet available,
			making it difficult to dissect the pathogenesis
			of SARS-CoV in the lungs. Here, we report
			that SARS-CoV can productively infect human
			bronchial epithelial Calu-3 cells, causing
			cytopathic effects, a process reflective
			of its natural course of infection in the
			lungs. Indirect immunofluorescence studies
			revealed a preferential expression of
			angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), the
			functional receptor of SARS-CoV, on the
			apical surface. Importantly, both ACE-2
			and viral antigen appeared to preferentially
			colocalize at the apical domain of infected
			cells. In highly polarized Calu-3 cells
			grown on the membrane inserts, we found
			that cells exposed to virus through the
			apical rather than the basolateral surface
			showed high levels of viral replication.
			Progeny virus was released into the apical
			chamber at titers up to 5 logs higher than
			those recovered from the basolateral chambers
			of polarized cultures. Taken together, these
			results indicate that SARS-CoV almost exclusively
			entered and was released from the apical
			domain of polarized Calu-3 cells, which
			might provide important insight into the
			mechanism of transmission and pathogenesis
			of SARS-CoV.

			DOI: 10.1128/JVI.79.15.9470-9479.2005
			PMCID: PMC1181546 PMID: 16014910 [Indexed
			for MEDLINE]

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