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			PubMed Journals: Nature

  Source:		PMID: 15772651


    		Nature. 2005 Mar 17;434(7031):325-37.
     
			The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome.

			Ross MT(1), Grafham DV, Coffey AJ, Scherer
			S, McLay K, Muzny D, Platzer M, Howell GR,
			Burrows C, Bird CP, Frankish A, Lovell FL,
			Howe KL, Ashurst JL, Fulton RS, Sudbrak
			R, Wen G, Jones MC, Hurles ME, Andrews TD,
			Scott CE, Searle S, Ramser J, Whittaker
			A, Deadman R, Carter NP, Hunt SE, Chen R,
			Cree A, Gunaratne P, Havlak P, Hodgson A,
			Metzker ML, Richards S, Scott G, Steffen
			D, Sodergren E, Wheeler DA, Worley KC, Ainscough
			R, Ambrose KD, Ansari-Lari MA, Aradhya S,
			Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Ballabio
			A, Banerjee R, Barker GE, Barlow KF, Barrett
			IP, Bates KN, Beare DM, Beasley H, Beasley
			O, Beck A, Bethel G, Blechschmidt K, Brady
			N, Bray-Allen S, Bridgeman AM, Brown AJ,
			Brown MJ, Bonnin D, Bruford EA, Buhay C,
			Burch P, Burford D, Burgess J, Burrill W,
			Burton J, Bye JM, Carder C, Carrel L, Chako
			J, Chapman JC, Chavez D, Chen E, Chen G,
			Chen Y, Chen Z, Chinault C, Ciccodicola
			A, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S,
			Clerc-Blankenburg K, Clifford K, Cobley
			V, Cole CG, Conquer JS, Corby N, Connor
			RE, David R, Davies J, Davis C, Davis J,
			Delgado O, Deshazo D, Dhami P, Ding Y, Dinh
			H, Dodsworth S, Draper H, Dugan-Rocha S,
			Dunham A, Dunn M, Durbin KJ, Dutta I, Eades
			T, Ellwood M, Emery-Cohen A, Errington H,
			Evans KL, Faulkner L, Francis F, Frankland
			J, Fraser AE, Galgoczy P, Gilbert J, Gill
			R, Glöckner G, Gregory SG, Gribble S, Griffiths
			C, Grocock R, Gu Y, Gwilliam R, Hamilton
			C, Hart EA, Hawes A, Heath PD, Heitmann
			K, Hennig S, Hernandez J, Hinzmann B, Ho
			S, Hoffs M, Howden PJ, Huckle EJ, Hume J,
			Hunt PJ, Hunt AR, Isherwood J, Jacob L,
			Johnson D, Jones S, de Jong PJ, Joseph SS,
			Keenan S, Kelly S, Kershaw JK, Khan Z, Kioschis
			P, Klages S, Knights AJ, Kosiura A, Kovar-Smith
			C, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leversha
			M, Lewis L, Liu W, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loulseged
			H, Loveland JE, Lovell JD, Lozado R, Lu
			J, Lyne R, Ma J, Maheshwari M, Matthews
			LH, McDowall J, McLaren S, McMurray A, Meidl
			P, Meitinger T, Milne S, Miner G, Mistry
			SL, Morgan M, Morris S, Müller I, Mullikin
			JC, Nguyen N, Nordsiek G, Nyakatura G, O'Dell
			CN, Okwuonu G, Palmer S, Pandian R, Parker
			D, Parrish J, Pasternak S, Patel D, Pearce
			AV, Pearson DM, Pelan SE, Perez L, Porter
			KM, Ramsey Y, Reichwald K, Rhodes S, Ridler
			KA, Schlessinger D, Schueler MG, Sehra HK,
			Shaw-Smith C, Shen H, Sheridan EM, Shownkeen
			R, Skuce CD, Smith ML, Sotheran EC, Steingruber
			HE, Steward CA, Storey R, Swann RM, Swarbreck
			D, Tabor PE, Taudien S, Taylor T, Teague
			B, Thomas K, Thorpe A, Timms K, Tracey A,
			Trevanion S, Tromans AC, d'Urso M, Verduzco
			D, Villasana D, Waldron L, Wall M, Wang
			Q, Warren J, Warry GL, Wei X, West A, Whitehead
			SL, Whiteley MN, Wilkinson JE, Willey DL,
			Williams G, Williams L, Williamson A, Williamson
			H, Wilming L, Woodmansey RL, Wray PW, Yen
			J, Zhang J, Zhou J, Zoghbi H, Zorilla S,
			Buck D, Reinhardt R, Poustka A, Rosenthal
			A, Lehrach H, Meindl A, Minx PJ, Hillier
			LW, Willard HF, Wilson RK, Waterston RH,
			Rice CM, Vaudin M, Coulson A, Nelson DL,
			Weinstock G, Sulston JE, Durbin R, Hubbard
			T, Gibbs RA, Beck S, Rogers J, Bentley DR.

			Author Information
			(1) The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute,
			Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge
			CB10 1SA, UK. mtr@sanger.ac.uk

			Comment in Nature. 2005 Mar 17;434(7031):279-80.

			The human X chromosome has a unique biology
			that was shaped by its evolution as the
			sex chromosome shared by males and females.
			We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic
			sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis
			illustrates the autosomal origin of the
			mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise
			process that led to the progressive loss
			of recombination between X and Y, and the
			extent of subsequent degradation of the
			Y chromosome. LINE1 repeat elements cover
			one-third of the X chromosome, with a distribution
			that is consistent with their proposed role
			as way stations in the process of X-chromosome
			inactivation. We found 1,098 genes in the
			sequence, of which 99 encode proteins expressed
			in testis and in various tumour types. A
			disproportionately high number of mendelian
			diseases are documented for the X chromosome.
			Of this number, 168 have been explained
			by mutations in 113 X-linked genes, which
			in many cases were characterized with the
			aid of the DNA sequence.

			DOI: 10.1038/nature03440 PMCID: PMC2665286
			PMID: 15772651 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

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